History of Maritime From Middle Ages to New Age

Pre-Medieval

The first people who wanted to travel on the water, undoubtedly, took advantage of a simple log of trees that did not sink. To compensate, they either combined it with other logging stumps and built a raft, or carved it out into a piragua shape. During this period, three types of boats were born. Up until recent years, inflated leather jumpsuits were used to cross some rivers in Asia and to fish fishing off the coast of Arabia. The caballito of the Peruvian coast consisted of a large bunch of reeds tied tightly; one end of this vehicle, which could swim, was slightly raised upwards. The fishermen of Lake Titicaca also used such floating vehicles. In Brazil, fishermen from the Recife region were able to open with them up to 50 miles off. Kon-Tiki's ability to travel from the Peruvian coast to Oceania proves that these rafts are resistant to the open sea.

East. Egypt. Greece. Bc. The discovery of a communiqué sarcophagus dating back to 1500 led to the construction of a new one similar to the old one for a phoenician ship. Almost all information on Assyrian shipping is limited to two low embossings. One of them is a ship that loads wood (bc) BC the other depicts a Sanherib galley. There were also round baskets called kuffe, which was covered in pitch and made of no water. These are still used in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Phoenicians and Carthians who were not afraid to go out of the Mediterranean were undoubtedly good sailors (Hannon's long voyage) after egyptian shipping, one-piece piraguas and papyrus boats, and the iv. dynastic period (B.C. 3000) starting from the tree ships were used, the first ships did not come out of the Nile much; But the later ones have made long journeys. Of these, queen Khachepsut's expedition to Punt is famous.

Deir ul-Bahri's giant fresco found tomorrow revives this expedition. In Greece's early archaic period, ships were used both in wars and in non-stop commercial campaigns. Then the distinction between commercial ships (bulging boron) and warships (long) emerged. In the battle, the pentecontoros (50 rowers) were used first, and the trieres were used starting in the mid-VI century (the largest navy was polycrates of Samodes): their length was 36 m, the width was 6 m, the water it pulled was 2.20 m, the sail set was 175 m2, The number of shovels was 170 and the crew was 200. The rowing team, distributed on 3 floors, included 170 rowers, 62, 54 and 54. The generals used to develop tactics to break the enemy's shovels in naval battles and to puncture the trieres' boat with their spurs.

These battles often resulted in landings intended to plunder enemy territory (trieres carried sailors and archers called epibates for this purpose). In the classical period, the most influential Greek navy belonged to Athens. (The Athenian navy was financed by the proceeds of the Laurion mines, the taxes of members of the Delos union and the trierarkhia specific to wealthy citizens.) During the Hellenic period, the Rhodes iid navy served as naval police; however, the pirates (who were adept at taking advantage of fast boats called lemboi) reduced their credibility. The Sailors of Marseilles (this city was a Greek colony at the time), especially Pytheas and Euthymenes, became famous for their journey beyond the Pillars of Heracles.

Roman Shipping

The Romans began shipbuilding at a very early time. The colonization of Ostia during the reign of King Ancus Martius and the paintings of the ship's bow on the coins, starting with the decemvirs, are proof of this. The first permanent navy and flotillas were built by Augustus. They took part in the Rhine and Danube rivers in Miseno, Frejus. The Romans, who did not care about innovation compared to the Greeks, still built special ships; actuaria carrying military units, hippago carrying horses. The battle fleet consisted of triremis, biremis and lighter ships called liburna. As in Greece, the merchant fleet had more bulging boron ships. Some merchant ships are thought to have reached quite large sizes. The evidence of this is that St. Paulus stated that there were 276 people on board when his ship sank. Admirals held praefectus and commanders were trierarchhos, navarchus and centurions.

Scandinavian Shipping

The Vikings sailed the high seas in the early stages. After going to Iceland, Erik the Red advanced to Greenland in the late Xth century. The other Viking sailors probably made it as far as Labrador, long before the Found of the United States. They then came to the Mediterranean and Italy to build a Norman empire in Sicily, conquering Ireland three times. Four Danish princes ruled England. The Kingdom of France was able to escape the Viking pirates only by leaving Normandy to them. the scandinavian boats of the first Scandinavian boats are thought to be made of wood and covered with animal skin; At the beginning of Christianity, and perhaps before, Viking carpenters made their ships entirely out of wood. Due to an ancient inscription requiring Viking chiefs to be buried with their ships, a certain number of ship remains were found during excavations on burial mounds in the last century. Thus, especially in Gokstad and Oseberg, well-preserved Viking ships (drakar) were unearthed.

Middle Ages and New Ages

Shipping in the Middle Ages and early New Age. According to Queen Matilda's tapestry, it is thought that heavier and busier boarded ships, which are the continuation of viking ships directly in the North, were built. The seals of major coastal cities, especially Sandwich (1238), Dover (1284) and Poole (1325), also contain the same type of ships. These ships are drakars with temporary superstructures attached to their ends; these add-ons allowed the enemy to dominate with the cannons owned by the warriors at that time. These superstructures were later assembled by boat; it was used as a shelter in front and back, under the name kasara.

The stern, which always acts as a rudder, has been replaced by XIII. In the 19th century, he took the rudder attached to the axis of the ship. The ships grew in size, but as usual, there was only one sail pole. It was difficult to manoeuvre because of the giant square sail drawn to this pole. In 1418, King Henry V of England built a two-masted ship, Harry Grâce Dieu, with a clear length of 55 m. The short ships of the Hansa contingent, called the cogghe, were built according to certain loads. These were ships whose board was fully bulging, not made out of speed anxiety, and went well as long as they took the wind from behind.

In the Mediterranean, ships were often called naves. These were ships with full swollen boards, 2.5-3 times the width, sometimes more. Naval archaeologist Jal has found the lease agreement for a Venetian ship chartered by Saint Louis for the seventh crusade. This ship, Roccaforte, was 36 meters long and 13 meters wide. It had two complete decks, two-story casings had many protrusions on the head and stern bodosing, two butt shovels functioned as rudder, each with two masts with latin-style sails. The author, Joinville, refers to a nave who brought Saint Louis from Palestine and had 800 people on board. At that time, however, there were undoubtedly larger ships, such as the three-masted nave, that led Richard the Lionheart to the crusade. During the Renaissance, sailors and shipbuilders often learned the rules of equilibrium, albeit to their own deed.

16. In the 19th century, high-board ships with a very high above-water section were built. The use of cannons at sea became widespread and the casings were upgraded to accommodate the largest number of balls. In all engravings of the period, such three and four mast ships can be found. Kerreke was a large freighter; for the first time in the 15th century. It was built in Italy in the 16th century, when the Portuguese benefited greatly from these ships in the Indian trade. Kalyon took his name from Spain and his fleet of gold; It was also the largest boat type on the board. The Hulkes were Dutch cargo ships; marsillanes performed the same function in the Mediterranean. The Portuguese karavelas were used on reconnaissance expeditions. These were two varieties: latina karavelas carrying only artefacts latin sails, and redonda karavelas with square sails on the mizana mast. For medium-sized ships, a length of 30 meters was generally adopted.

But, of course, there were much larger ships. Author P. Fournier describes the four-deck Carracon at the port of le Havre, while his crew mentions Portuguese kerreks with more than 1,500 men. British J. Charnock says that one of them can carry seven decks, 32 batches and 1600 tons of cargo. However, there is still doubt about the load amounts and tonilatos that can be transported; Because the methods used to measure the load stake of ships at that time were very different from today's. Tonilatos of British ships were usually given as ton burden; this unit of measurement corresponded to roughly 500 kilograms of wine barrels. But the "tonne burden" gradually increased by one-third or a quarter, and took the form of tun and tunnage when it came to merchandise.

In this case, the exhaustion during the stack was less than the barrel's defeat. However, the English writers of the time used one of the two phrases indifferently, without much mention of this distinction, which still causes confusion. Apart from these large ships, there were many small warships, cabotage ships and fishing boats of all kinds. In addition, galleys continued to be used in the Mediterranean not only as warships, but also as merchant ships, especially venetians. The Venetians took advantage of their regular lines to England, and galleys were found in Southampton until 1532.

Galley Shipping

Starting with the rowing ships of ancient times, the use of the shovel as a driving force continued in the Mediterranean. Venetians, to ensure the regularity of trade lines in the Mediterranean and Atlantic without being tied to the winds, galleys floated by 150 rowers over 50 meters tall, or three rowers sit and row each rower in each rowing seat he made galleys. This zenzile format was rowing. But it was later replaced by scaloccio-type rowing; In this method, many rowers were hanging from a single shovel. In addition to the large cargo galleys, Venice launched its war galleys, called sotiles or subtiles; followed by other Mediterranean countries. According to the manuscript of Barras de La Penne (1697), the galleys of the King of France were 51 m in length and 8 m wide. It had 51 shovels of 12 meters (a shovel on the pier side of the galleys was removed to make room for the kitchen); each of them would be shot by five people. The galleys were two-masted ships, each with a vesato sail.

In the head of the ship, the row of cannons collected on the spine was as follows: a 36-gun (coursier) in the middle, an 8 on each side of it, and a 6-pack. The total weight of the cannon that these five balls could throw was 25 kg. Galleys often engaged in ramp collisions; But the growth of the ship's size has made it increasingly difficult. Attempts were made to strengthen the armada weapon equipment of the towing type galleys. The cannons placed on their side of these played an important role in the naval battle. However, the pulled galleys were quickly left aside when they were too heavy to travel quickly with the shovels. In France, the Kingdom galley was abolished in 1748. Rowing was used as a basic or auxiliary flotation tool on many small ships such as Brigantin, small galleys, frigates, macaques (the last ones were used mainly by pirates).

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