Lead Acid Batteries
Lead acid battery cells consist of two suspended birds in an electrolyte formed by a watery low concentration (usually 29-32%) of sulfuric acid solution. (8) A battery consists of multiple cells that are serially connected to a single enclosure. While the battery's positive plate (anode) has lead dioxide, there is a spongy bullet in the negative plate (cathode). (9) When the battery is discharged, the distheresion of the bird in the positive plate turns into lead sulfate, and lead sulfate is turned into lead sulfate in the negative plate. Meanwhile, the electrolyte gains water while losing its sulfuric acid. As a result of these processes, electrical energy is generated. The reactions that occur on the plates are below.
Negative Plate reaction: Pb(s) + HSO−4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e− Positive plate reaction: PbO2(s) + HSO−4(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e− → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) Total reaction: Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
When charging the battery, the opposite of these processes occurs. While the plates are restored, sulfuric acid is regenerated in the electrolyte. Negative plate reaction: PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e− → Pb(s) + HSO−4(aq) Positive plate reaction: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → PbO2(s) + HSO−4(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e−
This cycle is not loss-free, so hydrogen gas may not return to electrolysis by not reacting when it should often be re-submerged in water. In order to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen, a flammable gas at dangerous levels, gas discharge must be done with holes in the battery and in the environment where the battery is located. These evacuation holes on the battery mean that electrolytes can be spilled if the battery overturns, which is a hazard during transport and is unusable in portable electric machine applications. Moreover, the continuous loss of hydrogen will cause the water in the electrolyte to decrease and the water must be completed by opening the battery. Most batteries today have level indicators that allow you to see electrolyte levels on the battery, and the drop-off cover is available when the level drops.
Fully Closed Batteries
The electricity of the fully closed battery is sulfuric acid, manufacturers use different chemicals to prevent gas extraction in filling and discharge and put them in sealed packaging.
VRLA batteries are trying to eliminate these problems experienced by ordinary lead acid batteries by immobilizing the electrolyte. During this process, the battery is trapped near the plate when discharged, and when the battery is recharged, the hydrogen reassembles into water. In this way, water loss is reduced and it is called maintenance because there is no need to add water again. Thus, the amount of hydrogen accumulated decreased, the need for evacuation decreased and the batteries can be completely turned off, so it can be used without fear of spillage in any way. VRLA batteries also have a small amount of gas output compared to aqueous lead acid batteries. During fast charging, the electrolyte can boil and swell and apply pressure to the container, or the gas buildup can be too fast for rejoining.
These effects make valve arrangement (adjustment inevitable). This valve is in the form of a one-way all-empty valve, only opening when pressure occurs. Even when the valve is opened suddenly, the immobilizer ingredient in the battery prevents any acid leakage that may occur. Some of the battery designs are so stable that they contain very few electrolytes, so much acid leakage does not occur even if the battery is split in two. The main disadvantage of VRLA design is that it immobilizes the chemical reactions that make up power. For this reason, VRLA batteries have lower peak power values than ordinary designs. This does not fit the way the car startup batteries are used, i.e. the way it starts with short high current throws and continues with long slow charging cycles. VRLA batteries are mostly used in power storage applications, for example, in areas where charging/discharge cycles are slow.
AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) batteries are separated from aqueous lead acid batteries by holding the electrolyte in a glass matte, as opposed to the free movement of the electrolyte. Glass fibers with a very thin micrometer level form glass matte separators on the cells. This matte surface is very well soaked with sulfuric acid. The thin pores on the matte surface absorb electrolytes, but large pores are open. It allows gas transfer both when holding the electrolyte and with large pores. (12) (13) The plates inside the AGM battery may be in any form. Some are flat, some are angular or wrapped. AGM batteries are in a rectangular enclosure for both deep cycle and startup.
A gel battery (also known as a gel cell) is a VRLA battery with gelled electrolytes; Sulfuric acid is mixed with silica vapor, which comes out motionless in solid gel form. These batteries do not have to be kept upright like aqueous lead acid batteries. Gel batteries electrolyte evaporation, spillage (and subsequent corrosion problems), which are common problems in aqueous batteries, have reduced and are highly resistant to shock or impact for very high temperatures.
Battery on boat
To start the engine, we use a battery that can give high current in a short time. For other electrical needs on the boat, we select batteries that can continuously generate low current. Lead-acid, AGM or gel batteries require a different charging regimen, so it is necessary to be careful in the selection of batteries. If you choose an AGM or gel battery instead of a lead-acid battery, it is important that your alternator, solar panels and charger from the city grid provide proper charging to your batteries. If your chargers are not available or are not adjusted according to the type of battery, your batteries may deteriorate in a very short time.
Batteries should be stored in their private compartments on the boat. There should be a container that can accumulate when the acid flows under the battery. The same container should be used for gel or AGM. Although they do not miss electrolytes under nomal operating conditions, batteries may crack and miss electrolytes due to incorrect charging conditions.
It is also important to secure the batteries to the boat. Rules require batteries not to move from where they are, even when the boat turns upside down. If a battery traveling in turbulent sea hits the hull or elsewhere, it can easily break.
Another safety measure is to cover the polar heads of the aculein. This is how any metal that falls on the battery while working somewhere is prevented from short-circuiting… The battery compartment must not have cables other than main battery cables and fuel pipes (diesel, LPG or gasoline) should not be passed through this compartment.